Getting More Money In the Pot By Not Raising

Sometimes even with no more cards to come you can get more money or at least as much money into a multi-way pot by calling instead of raising, and at the same time avoid the risk of a reraise from the original bettor. You go for the overcall. That is, you call instead of raising in order to extract money from one or more of the players still in the pot behind you. Suppose, after all the cards are out, the bettor to your right appears to have a hand you can beat. If you raise, that player will...

Check Raising With a Second Best Hand

While you generally check-raise because you think you have the best hand, it is frequently correct to check-raise with a second-best hand if the play will drive other opponents out. The principle here is identical to the principle of raising with what you think is the second-best hand as it was explained in Chapter Nine and Chapter Thirteen. If the probable best hand is to your immediate right, you can check, wait for that player to bet, then raise so that the rest of the table will fold rather...

Raising to Get a Free Card

As we just noted, when your semi-bluff raise is called, it may have allowed you the opportunity to get a free card on the next round. However, when you're thinking of raising specifically to get a free card, you should keep in mind two considerations your position and the cost of the raise. To get a free card, you must be last to act if you are not last and you check, you will have shown weakness. A player behind you with a better hand than yours will probably bet, denying you the chance for a...

Calling on the Basis of Pot Odds With More Cards to Come

What about deciding whether to call before the draw in draw poker and in stud games when there is one card to come Now the math becomes important. If you know you have to improve your hand to win, you have to determine your chances of improving in comparison to your pot odds. With a flush draw or an open-ended straight draw we'll assume the game is five-card draw poker you would be correct to call a 10 bet when the pot is 50 since your chance of making the flush or the straight is better than...

Draw Poker

Everyone folds except the player under the gun who originally checked to you and who now raises another 5. We'll assume you know this player will never make such a play without three-of-a-kind or better. We'll also assume that with the antes and your implied odds it would be incorrect to fold even if you knew your opponent had a pat hand. So the question is whether you should simply call the 5 raise or reraise another 5. Your opponent's raise tells you he has...

Stopping Bluffs

Essentially the strategy to stop bluffs is to represent more strength than you actually have. Your opponent will not try to bluff, thinking you have at least a calling hand and perhaps better. Let's say you are playing draw poker, jacks or better to open, against someone you want to stop from bluffing. As the dealer in last position, you open with a pair of aces. After having originally checked in a very deep position, the potential bluffer now calls you. There is no chance that player has...

Giving or Not Giving a Free Card With a Marginal Hand

When you are certain you have the best hand, deciding whether to bet with more cards to come is relatively easy. However, you are frequently in a situation where you suspect you have the best hand, but you know you will be called only if you are beaten. Still, you must consider betting so that you do not give your opponent a free shot to outdraw you in the event you do have the best hand. The factors to consider when deciding to bet are 1.Your chances of having the best hand. 2.The chances the...

Bluffing and Betting for Value

The number of poker hands anyone can have is comparatively limited, but in addition to the hands themselves there are so many other variables that rarely if ever is a particular play always right or always wrong. Your play is affected by the size of the pot, your position, the opponent or opponents you are facing, the way they have been playing, the amount of money they have and you have, the flow of the game, and other, more subtle factors. This point is particularly applicable to questions of...

The Power of the Semi Bluff

Let's say you're playing seven-card stud. You have a pair of jacks, and on fifth street your opponent bets. You know he has a big hand. So your response is easy You fold. Suppose you know your opponent is bluffing with nothing. Again your response is easy You raise. Suppose you think he has you beat with two small pair, but you're getting sufficient pot odds for a call. So you call. Straightforward bets, straightforward responses. But what if your opponent is not so straightforward What if he's...

Bluffing Against Come Hands

Sometimes both you and your opponent have been drawing to a flush or a straight. You don't make your hand, but there's a good chance your opponent didn't make his either. Because of earlier bets on the come, there may be a fair amount in the pot say, 100 in a 10- 20 game. Now let's say you are first, and you end up with an AJ high. You think there's a 55 percent chance your opponent made a legitimate hand, and there's a 15 percent chance he has you beat by mistake with something like an A,K or...

The Cost of Giving Your Hand Away

This extreme example points up a basic poker dilemma. You want to make the most of your hands by maximizing your gains and minimizing your losses, yet what are you costing yourself when you play in such a way that your opponents should know what you have The answer to this question is contained in the Fundamental Theorem of Poker, which states that every time opponents play a hand differently from the way they would have if they could see all your cards, you gain and every time they play a hand...

Bluffs When All the Cards are

When all the cards are out, you obviously can no longer semi-bluff. You have either made your hand or you haven't. So all bluffs on the end are pure bluffs. They are bets or raises that you do not expect to win if you are called. When you are sitting there knowing you have the worst hand, knowing you cannot win by checking, knowing you cannot win by calling your opponent's bet, the only question is whether or not to try to bluff. You should not if you think the chances your opponent will call...

The Forms of Poker

Poker is a generic name for literally hundreds of games, but they all fall within a few interrelated types. There are high games like seven-card stud and Texas hold 'em, in which the highest hand in the showdown wins, and low games like draw lowball and razz, in which the lowest hand wins. There are also high-low split games, in which the best high hand and the best low hand split the pot. Among high, low, and high-low split games there are those like five-card draw, in which the hands are...

Advantages of Last Position

To suggest how important it is to be last, let's take a situation from seven-card razz. Suppose you started off with a good three-card low, and you think your opponent did, too. Now you catch a king or even a queen, and your opponent pairs up on board. Without a pair, you clearly have the best low hand if play were to stop immediately, yet you should not bet. The open pair makes it likely that your opponent will be last to act on every betting round, and that fact more than makes up for your...

Come Hands in Loose Games

In contrast to other semi-bluff hands and small pairs, come hands increase in value with many players in the pot because you are usually getting excellent pot odds to draw to them. Furthermore, when the game is loose, you figure to get paid off well once you've made a straight or a flush. Therefore, in a loose game with several players in the pot, you should play more drawing hands, such as big three-flushes on fourth street in seven-card stud, than you would usually play. In loose games, then,...

Semi Bluffs and Pure Bluffs

A pure bluff is a bet, which, if called, has no chance of winning in a showdown. A semi-bluff is a bet with more cards to come which, if called, is probably not the best hand at the moment but has a reasonable chance of becoming the best hand. Many expert players believe their bluffs should have negative expectation. They see them as a form of advertising that will lead to their being called on other occasions when they do have the best hand. However, I believe pure bluffs should have no worse...

Exposed Cards

There is one aspect of comparing the odds of making your hand to your pot odds that is frequently overlooked in open-handed games like stud poker and razz The effect on your play of the cards exposed in other players' hands, which of course includes cards that were folded along with those still out against you. For instance, it would be crazy to play a pair of 5s in seven-card stud with the two other 5 s exposed. Your chances of improving a hand change dramatically according to the number of...

Legitimate Hands in Loose Games

What about legitimate hands In a loose game people are willing to play a hand that is relatively lower in value than the average. Therefore, your own legitimate hands don't need to be quite as good as in a normal game since your opponents are likely to be staying with you with even worse hands. This becomes especially true when you get heads-up against one opponent. However, because of the action and the participants' style of play, loose games frequently tend to have multi-way pots. With many...

High Low Split

This name covers several popular forms of poker. The game may be five-card draw, five-card stud, or seven-card stud, and in the showdown the best low hand and the best high hand split the pot. Sometimes, however, the rules may require that players have to declare either simultaneously or consecutively whether they are going for high, for low, or for both. In five-card high-low split games the best low hand is always A,2,3,4,5, as in draw lowball. In seven stud games the best low hand is...

Adjusting Properly to the Structure

The important thing is to adjust your play to the betting rules, the betting limits, and the ante structure with which you are confronted. This ability to adjust is one of your greatest edges against the good but nontheoretical player. It takes quite a while for the nontheoretical player to find instinctively the correct method of play in an unfamiliar structure. In the meantime, that player makes costly mistakes. For example, the 15- 30 hold 'em game that used to be played at the Golden Nugget...

Seven Card Stud

Three cards are dealt to each player, two face down and one face up. Depending on the betting rules, either the low card or the high card on board starts the action. When there are two low (or high) cards of the same rank, either the card of the lowest ranking suit (clubs, then diamonds, then hearts) or the card closest to the dealer's left starts the action, once again depending on the betting rules in effect. After the first round of betting, a fourth card is dealt face up, and now the high...

Raising to Drive Out Better Hands When a Come Hand Bets

Let's say on fifth street in seven stud you have two 10s, and the player to your right bets with an obvious flush draw. You know there are a couple of players behind you with higher pairs than yours. Nevertheless, you may be in a position to raise if you think the better hands will fold rather than call a double bet. When they do fold, you become the favorite heads-up against the come hand, and if that player misses his flush, your raise on fifth street has won you the pot. The player betting...

The Theory of Poker

Copyright 1987, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1999 David Sklansky All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the express permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact Two Plus Two Publishing 600 West Sunset Suite 103 Henderson NV 89015

The Ante Structure

All poker starts as a struggle for the antes. If there were no ante, there would be no reason to play. It's true that some players would play anyway, but a good player in such a game would simply wait for the pure nuts and nearly always win. A good player would have no reason to play anything but big starter hands three aces, say, in seven-card stud because with no money yet in the pot, there would be nothing to shoot for. To play with anything less would be to risk getting picked off by...

Raising Versus Folding or Calling

Raising is often a better alternative than folding, with calling the worst of the three. Such situations occur frequently when there are several players in the pot. Thus, when you raise with two 10s against someone betting on the come and succeed in driving better hands out, you show a profit on the hand in the long run. However, when you don't want to try this play, calling cannot be profitable because you are too big an underdog. Similarly, we have noted it may be correct to raise with what...

Analyzing the Cost of a Mistake

Unfortunately, the play that is likely to be right most of the time is not always the correct play. When you have a choice of plays, you also have to decide how bad it will be if you make a mistake. Here is an obvious example. If your opponent bets on the end and you think the chances are better than 50-50 that that opponent has the best hand, the correct play most of the time is to fold and save a bet. However, it costs you not just one bet but the whole pot when folding turns out to be a...

Slowplaying Versus Check Raising

It is playing a hand weakly on one round of betting in order to suck people in for later bets. Typical slowplays are to check if there has been no bet or just call a bet rather than raise. In other words, you take no action beyond what is necessary to stay in the pot. You give nothing away about the strength of your hand. When you check-raise you usually want to reduce the number of your opponents, but when you slowplay you are trying to keep as many players...

Bluffing Against Two or More Opponents

It is rarely correct to try to bluff out two or more people when all the cards are out your chances of success decrease geometrically with each additional player in the pot. Paradoxically you might have a profitable bluffing opportunity against each of two opponents individually, but not against both of them as a group. Suppose, for example, you are heads-up on the end in a 10- 20 game. There is 80 in the pot, and you think you can get away with a bluff one out of three times. Clearly this is...

Requirements for Slowplaying

In most cases, for a slowplay to be correct, all of the following must be true. 1 .You must have a very strong hand. 2.The free card or cheap card you are allowing other players to get must have good possibilities of making them a second-best hand. 3.That same free card must have little chance of making someone a better hand than yours or even giving that person a draw to a better hand than yours on the next round with sufficient odds to justify a call. 4. You must be sure you will drive other...

Preface

This book is about the general theories and concepts of poker play, which are operative in nearly every variation of poker from five-card draw to Texas hold 'em. It is not a how-to book in the sense of providing the basic rules and a step-by-step procedure for playing the various games. Beginning poker players sometimes ask, What do you do in this particular situation There is really no correct answer to that question because it's the wrong question. Rules of thumb that say to fold one hand,...

Possible Bet On the Come

Secondly, in stud and hold 'em games, it is usually a mistake to raise with a good but not a great hand when you think your opponent particularly a very tough opponent has bet or raised on the come for a flush or a straight. If his bet was legitimate, he probably has you beat, so you're simply donating money to the pot. If he was on the come, he has an easy call of your raise, which eliminates most of the reasons for you to make it. Thus, even if you were quite sure that the Q4J494 earlier in...

Bluffing On The

There are two basic conditions that determine how you act when you are heads-up on the end whether or not you have made a legitimate hand and whether you are in first position or last position. Without a legitimate hand against an opponent with a legitimate hand, you cannot win except on a bluff a bet or a raise that causes your opponent to fold. You cannot hope to win by checking or by calling. Determining whether or not to try a bluff on the end is based on the same logic as any other bet....

The Ante and Other Forced Bets

The key question to ask about the ante and other forced bets like the blinds in hold 'em is How big are they in relation to the betting limits As we saw in Chapter Four, when the ante is large, you must loosen up, try to steal more antes, and almost never slowplay. When the ante is small, you tighten up, steal fewer antes, and slowplay more. If you find you do better and are more comfortable in a tighter, small-ante game, that's what you should look for, and vice versa. For example, if you are...

Table of Contents

xi Chapter One Beyond Beginning Poker 1 Chapter Two Expectation and Hourly Rate 9 Mathematical Mathematical Expectation in Poker 12 Chapter Three The Fundamental Theorem of Poker 17 Examples of The Fundamental Theorem of Poker 18 Example Example Example Example Example Mistakes According to The Fundamental Theorem of Multi-Way Pots Summary Chapter Four The Ante Structure 27 Calling on the Basis of Pot Odds When All the Cards Calling on the Basis of Pot Odds With More Cards to 36 41 Drawing to...

Getting a Free Card

If not giving a free card is that important, it should be clear how valuable it is to get a free card when you don't have the best hand. That free card might turn a hand you would have folded into a winner or save you a bet on a hand with which you intended to call anyway. Of course, getting a free card against reasonably good players is not easy. One way is to put in a small raise on an early round in the hope that everyone still in the pot will check around to you on the next round. Then you...

Bluffs When There are More Cards to Come

When there are more cards to come, your bluffs should rarely be pure bluffs that is to say, bets or raises that have little or no chance of winning if you are called, even taking into account the cards you may get on future rounds. Instead your early-round bets should be semi-bluffs, those powerful, deceptive plays we looked at in detail in Chapters Eleven and Twelve. It is important to bluff occasionally on early rounds to keep your opponents off-balance. But why do it when you have only one...

Mathematical Expectation

Mathematical expectation is the amount a bet will average winning or losing. It is an extremely important concept for the gambler because it shows him how to evaluate most gambling problems. Using mathematical expectation is also the best way to analyze most poker plays. Let's say you are betting a friend 1, even money, on the flip of a coin. Each time it comes up heads, you win each time it comes up tails, you lose. The odds of its coming up heads are 1-to-1, and you're betting l-to- l....

Game Theory and Bluffing

Game theory sounds like a theory about games, but it is actually a branch of mathematics dealing with the decision-making process. While it applies to games, as we shall see, it also applies to such disciplines as economics, international relations, social science, and military science. Essentially game theory attempts to discover mathematically the best strategies against someone also using the best strategies. Against an opponent you think is weaker than you are and it can be in any game...

Chapter Eighteen

The 1978 no-limit hold 'em world championship at the Horseshoe in Las Vegas came down to a battle between owlish Bobby Baldwin of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and sartorial real-estate magnate Crandall Addington of San Antonio, Texas. An hour before the championship ended. Addington had 275,000, and Baldwin, about half as much 145,000. Among the gamblers along the rail Addington was the clear favorite, but then came the hand that turned everything around. Acting first, Baldwin bet before the flop, and...

When to Fold and When to Raise

We have said, up to this point, that the two main defenses against the semi-bluff are simply giving up and folding, or raising. (In all cases we are assuming the pot is relatively small.) The question now is when to do the one and when to do the other. That is, when do you fold, and when do you raise Obviously when you have a very poor hand, you fold. When you have a big hand, you raise unless it's so big you want to slowplay and trap your opponent later. The difficult decisions occur when you...

The Difficulty of Defending Against the Semi Bluff

To illustrate the difficulty of defending against the semi-bluff, we'll take a seven-card stud hand from our discussion of semi-bluffing in the preceding chapter and reverse roles Suppose you bet on fourth street, and your opponent raises. Knowing your opponent is fully capable of semi-bluffing in this spot with something like a pair of 7s in the hole, you still should probably not call with a pair of 9s. He may in fact have a pair of queens or jacks. Or he may be semi-bluffing with a...

The Fundamental Theorem of Poker

This example may also seem too obvious for serious discussion, but it is a general statement of some fairly sophisticated plays. Let's say in no-limit hold 'em you hold the You check, your opponent bets, and you call. Now the ace of diamonds comes on fourth street, and you bet, trying to represent aces. If your opponent knew what you had, his correct play would be to raise you so much it would cost too much to draw to a flush or a straight on the last card, and you would have to fold....

Advantages of the Semi Bluff

First, the semi-bluff tends to make your opponent play incorrectly according to the Fundamental Theorem of Poker. When you semi-bluff, you presumably do not have the best hand. If your opponent could see your cards, his correct play would be to raise. However, since you are representing something with your semi-bluff, opponents will nearly always only call. Sometimes they will make the worst play of all by folding the best hand. Second, when the hand with which you are semi-bluffing is in fact...

Pker Stars Pker Stars

Click this link to download and install PokerStars. Receive the maximum deposit bonus of 100 up to 600. Marketing Code PSP6964 possibly bet the hand on the end for the simple reason that your bet has absolutely no positive expectation. Since your four jacks are exposed for the world to see, your opponent will fold every hand he can have except four queens or a straight flush in hearts. With either of those hands, he will raise. So your bet has nothing to gain and everything to lose. This very...

Raising as a Means of Cutting Down Opponents Odds

To illustrate this important point, we'll examine a hand from five card draw poker. You have a pat flush the player to your right has nothing at all, and the player to your left has two pair. For the purposes of this illustration, we'll assume you know exactly what both opponents have. We'll also assume the betting limit is a flat 10 but that somehow a 100 pot has been created before betting gets under way. With the cards out, we'll say the chances of the two pair improving to a full house are...

Raising to Bluff or Semi Bluff

Raising as a pure bluff with a hand that has no chance of winning if called is a tricky play, too risky to be attempted often. It is usually done only when there are no more cards to come, often when you didn't make the hand you were hoping to make but are trying to convince your opponent you did. Presumably your opponent has a decent hand to bet into you and is reluctant to throw it away when you raise. In limit poker, raising as a pure bluff can succeed often enough to be profitable only...

Beyond Beginning Poker

The beauty of poker is that on the surface it is a game of utter simplicity, yet beneath the surface it is profound, rich, and full of subtlety. Because its basic rules are so simple, anyone can learn poker in a few minutes, and novice players may even think they're pretty good after a few hours. From the expert's point of view, the veneer of simplicity that deludes so many players into thinking they're good is the profitable side of the game's beauty. It doesn't take long for pool players or...

Analysis at the Table

Like any other gambling game, poker is a game of risks versus rewards. Any decision you make at the poker table can be thought of as a comparison of the risk involved in a particular play and the possible reward for the play. There are three questions involved in arriving at a decision How great is the risk How great is the reward Is the reward great enough to justify the risk When deciding whether to bluff, your risk is a bet. Your reward is the pot (as well as advertising value if you show...

Bluffing According to Your Opponent

You must, of course, consider your opponent when deciding whether to bet a fair hand for value or to bluff. Against a perpetual caller, obviously you should rarely bluff. However, against such a player you should bet any hand that you figure is a reasonable favorite to be the best hand. In contrast, against a tough player capable of tough folds, you can get away with bluffs more often, but you should be more reluctant to bet your fair hands for value. A tough opponent is not likely to pay you...

First Position Play

When you are first to act with a legitimate hand, you have four options. One is to check with the intention of raising if your opponent bets. Another is to come out betting. The third is to check with the intention of calling if your opponent bets. And the fourth is to check and fold if your opponent bets. With very strong hands your options are to try a check-raise or to come out betting. The key factors in deciding whether to check-raise are 1.The chances your opponent will bet if you check....

Advantages of First Position

However, this point does bring out the fact that there are a few situations where it's advantageous to be first. In first or early position you get more check-raising opportunities. Furthermore, with a lock in first position you might win three bets by betting and reraising. Finally, you sometimes want to drive players out to make your hand stand up only raising in early position, before opponents have had the opportunity to call the first bet, can succeed in doing this. Nevertheless, these...

Using Game Theory to Call Possible Bluffs

Just as you can use game theory to bluff, you can also use it to call possible bluffs. Usually when your hand can beat only a bluff, you use your experience and judgment to determine the chances your opponent is bluffing. If your hand can beat some of your opponent's legitimate hands, then you do a standard comparison of your chances of having the best hand plus the chances your opponent is bluffing against the pot odds you are getting. However, against an opponent whose judgment is as good as...

Using Mathematics to Read Hands

When you can't actually put a person on a hand but have reduced his possible hands to a limited number, you try to use mathematics to determine the chances of his having certain hands rather than others. Then you decide what kind of hand you must have to continue playing. Using mathematics is particularly important in draw poker, where your main clue to what an opponent might have is what you know about his opening, calling, and raising requirements. If, for example, you know an opponent will...

The Betting Limits

The first thing to consider about the betting limits is whether you can afford them. Even if you think you have much the best of it, you should not play in a game whose limits are so high in relation to your bankroll that you cannot play your hands correctly because you don't want to risk going broke. At the same time, when you think you have the best of it, you should play at the highest limits you can afford whenever possible. The excellent nohprofessional player Jay Heimowitz, from Monti...

Reading Hands

The ability to read hands may be the most important weapon a poker player can have. As the Fundamental Theorem of Poker suggests, the key mistake in poker is to play your hand differently from the way you would play it if you knew what your opponent had. The more often you play your hand correctly on the basis of what your opponent has the less you give up and the more you gain. If you somehow knew what your opponent had every time, you almost couldn't lose because you would always play...

Hourly Rate

As suggested in the coin-flip example at the opening of this chapter, hourly rate is closely related to expectation, and it is a concept especially important to the professional player. When you go into a poker game, you should try to assess what you think you can earn per hour. For the most part you will have to base your assessment on your judgment and experience, but you can use certain mathematical guidelines. For instance, if you are playing draw lowball and you see three players calling...

The Object of Poker

Whether you are playing 1-limit poker at the kitchen table or pot-limit poker at the Stardust in Las Vegas, whether you are playing poker for fun or for a living, once a week or every day, you have to understand that the object of the game is to make money. That's where the profits are. That's where the fun is. That's the way the game is scored. lack Straus, 1982 poker champion, has said he'd bust his own grandmother if she was in a pot with him, which is pretty much the only attitude a serious...

Evaluating the Game

Before sitting down, good poker players stop and evaluate the game, especially when they have many games to choose from as they do in Las Vegas, California, or New Jersey. However, a serious player should evaluate even a weekly private game before deciding whether to become a regular. There are two reasons for evaluating a game. One is to determine whether the game is worth playing. The second is to determine how to play in that particular game. When professional players consider whether a game...

Analysis in Theory

One of the most difficult things for the average poker player to do is to make accurate decisions at the game in the heat of a hand. Many good and bad players alike simply decide what they think their opponent has and then go on to determine their best play on the assumption that their opponent has the hand they're assuming he has. However, as we saw in the chapter on reading hands, this is a bad and potentially costly way of going about the business of decision-making. There is a better way,...

Small Antes

Not playing loose enough in high-ante games is a much less common problem among poker players than playing too loose in low-ante and average-ante games. When players in a game cry out, Here comes a live one, what they mean is, Here comes a player who plays too many pots, who always wants to get into the action, who doesn't consider the odds before calling, who calls to the end with next to nothing when two aces are staring him in the face. Put more succinctly, what they mean is, Here comes a...

The Ethics of Check Raising

There are some amateur poker players who find something reprehensible about check-raising. They find it devious and deceitful and consider people who use it to be less than well-bred. Well, check-raising is devious and it is deceitful, but being devious and deceitful is precisely what one wants to be in a poker game, as is implied by the Fundamental Theorem of Poker. Checking with the intention of raising is one way to do that. In a sense, check-raising and slowplaying are the opposites of...

Loose and Tight Play

Loose poker players play a large percentage of hands. They have relatively low starting requirements, and they continue in the pot with relatively weak hands. Tight players play a small percentage of hands. Their starting requirements are high, and they are quick to throw away weak hands that don't develop into big hands. Some players always play loose. Others always play tight. Good players adjust their play to the game. In Chapter Four we saw how the size of the ante relative to later bets is...

Summary

A bluff is a bet or raise with a hand you do not think is the best hand. With more cards to come, you should generally restrict yourself to semi-bluffs with hands that may become the best hand. When deciding whether to make a pure bluff, you estimate whether your chances of getting away with it are better than the pot odds you are getting. However, if there are more cards to come and you plan to continue to bluff, you must take into account your effective odds. On the end you should usually...

Optimum Bluffing Frequency

What is the right bluffing frequency It is a frequency that makes it impossible for your opponents to know whether to call or fold. Mathematically, optimal bluffing strategy is to bluff in such a way that the chances against your bluffing are identical to the pot odds your opponent is getting. Thus, if, as in the example just given, an opponent is getting 6-to-l from the pot, the chances against your bluffing should be 6-to-l. Then that opponent would break even on the last bet by calling every...